In today's digital world we face a paradox:
We cannot afford to be computer illiterate, yet we don't have time
to learn everything about computers and the Internet. In fact, there
is so much to know about the Internet, Internet Security, Web Design
and development and Multimedia components like Web site graphics,
that nobody know it all. I don't believe it to be possible.
So, each of us goes about learning those particular functions needed
to do our jobs, and end up with an unbalanced education. We may be
experts at using MS Word, or Excel, but have no idea at all on how
to keep our computers running smoothly, how to find a lost file, how
to retrieve an accidentally deleted file, or hundreds of other things.
We can be the worlds biggest whiz kid in Quicken,
but can never find anything in our email.This seems like a natural
situation, but I believe it is very costly to have this unbalanced
education. We post all ofthis information on website design and development,
computer graphics, streaming video , greenscreen and windows xp tutorials
to help you fill in some gaps in your knowledge. We always try to present
information in very plain language wherever possible.
In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language
designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable
in a browser. HTML is used to structure information -- denoting certain
text as headings, paragraphs, lists and so on -- and can be used to
define the semantics of a document.
Originally defined by Tim Berners-Lee and further developed by the
IETF with a simplified SGML syntax, HTML is now an international standard
(ISO/IEC 15445:2000). Later HTML specifications are maintained by the
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Early versions of HTML were defined with looser syntactical rules
which helped its adoption by those unfamiliar with web publishing.
Web browsers commonly made assumptions about intent and proceeded with
rendering of the page. Over time, the trend in the official standards
has been to create an increasingly strict language syntax; however,
browsers still continue to render pages that are far from valid HTML.
The current version of the HTML specification is now XHTML 1.0, this
being very similar to the earlier HTML 4.01 that it replaces. The change
from HTML to XHTML applies the stricter rules of XML to HTML to make
it easier to process and maintain.
Introduction to HTML
HTML is a form of markup that is oriented toward the construction of
single-page text documents with specialized rendering software called
HTML user agents, the most common example of which is a web browser.
HTML provides a means by which the document's content can be annotated
with various kinds of metadata and rendering hints. The rendering
cues may range from minor text decorations, such as specifying that
a certain word be underlined or that an image be inserted, to sophisticated
imagemaps and form definitions. The metadata may include information
about the document's title and author, structural information such
as headings, paragraphs, lists, and information that allows the document
to be linked to other documents to form a hypertext web.
HTML is a text based format that is designed to be both readable and
editable by humans using a text editor. However, writing and updating
a large number of pages by hand in this way is time consuming, requires
a good knowledge of HTML and can make consistency difficult to maintain.
Visual HTML editors such as Macromedia Dreamweaver, Adobe GoLive or
Microsoft FrontPage allow the creation of web pages to be treated much
like word processor documents. The code generated by these programs
can be of poor quality. However, the open-source visual HTML editor
Nvu generates code of high quality.
HTML can be generated on the fly using a server-side scripting system
such as Perl, PHP, JSP, or ASP. Many web applications like content
management systems, wikis and web forums generate HTML pages.
Version history of the standard Hypertext Markup Language (First
Version), published June 1993 as an Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) working draft (not standard).
HTML 2.0, published November 1995 as IETF RFC 1866, and declared obsolete/historic
by RFC 2854 in June 2000.
HTML 3.2, published January 14, 1997 as a W3C Recommendation.
HTML 4.0, published December 18, 1997 as a W3C Recommendation.
HTML 4.01, published December 24, 1999 as a W3C Recommendation.
ISO/IEC 15445:2000 ("ISO HTML", based on HTML 4.01 Strict),
published May 15, 2000 as an ISO/IEC international standard.
XHTML 1.0, published January 26, 2000 as a W3C Recommendation, later
revised and republished August 1, 2002.
There is no official standard HTML 1.0 specification because there
were multiple informal HTML standards at the time. However, some people
consider the initial edition provided by Tim Berners-Lee to be the
definitive HTML 1.0. That version did not include an IMG element type.
Work on a successor for HTML, then called "HTML+", began
in late 1993, designed originally to be "A superset of HTML…which
will allow a gradual rollover from the previous format of HTML".
The first formal specification was therefore given the version number
2.0 in order to distinguish it from these unofficial "standards".
Work on HTML+ continued, but this never became a standard.
The HTML 3.0 standard was proposed by the newly formed W3C in March
1995, and provided many new capabilities such as support for tables,
text flow around figures and the display of complex math elements.
Even though it was designed to be compatible with HTML 2.0, it was
too complex at the time to be implemented, and when the draft expired
in September 1995 work in this direction was discontinued due to lack
of browser support. HTML 3.1 was never officially proposed, and the
next standard proposal was HTML 3.2 (code-named "Wilbur"),
which dropped the majority of the new features in HTML 3.0 and instead
adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes which had
been created for the Netscape and Mosaic web browsers. Support for
math as proposed by HTML 3.0 finally came about years later with a
different standard, MathML.
HTML 4.0 likewise adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes,
but at the same time began to try to "clean up" the standard
by marking some of them as deprecated, and suggesting they not be used.
Minor editorial revisions to the HTML 4.0 specification were published
as HTML 4.01.
The most common extension for files containing HTML is .html, however,
older operating systems, such as DOS, limit file extensions to three
letters, so a .htm extension is also used. Although perhaps less common
now, the shorter form is still widely supported by current software
Markup element types
Below are the kinds of markup element types in HTML.
Structural markup. Describes the purpose of text. For example,
directs the browser to render "Golf" as a second-level heading,
similar to "Markup element types" at the start of this section.
Structural markup does not denote any specific rendering, but most
web browsers have standardised on how elements should be formatted.
For example, by default, headings like these will appear in large,
bold text. Further styling should be done with Cascading Style Sheets
Presentational markup. Describes the appearance of the text, regardless
of its function. For example,
will render "boldface" in bold text. In the majority of cases,
using presentational markup is inappropriate, and presentation should
be controlled by using CSS. In the case of both <b>bold</b> and <i>italic</i> there
are elements which usually have an equivalent visual rendering but
are more semantic in nature, namely <strong>strong emphasis</strong> and <em>emphasis</em> respectively.
It is easier to see how an aural user agent should interpret the latter
Hypertext markup. Links parts of the document to other documents. For
The Document Type Definition
In order to specify which version of the HTML standard they conform
to, all HTML documents should start with a Document Type Declaration
(informally, a "DOCTYPE"), which makes reference to a Document
Type Definition (DTD). For example:
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN"
This declaration asserts that the document conforms to the Strict DTD
of HTML 4.01, which is purely structural, leaving formatting to Cascading
Style Sheets. In some cases, the presence or absence of an appropriate
DTD may influence how a web browser will display the page.
In addition to the Strict DTD, HTML 4.01 provides Transitional and
Frameset DTDs. The Transitional DTD was intended to gradually phase
in the changes made in the Strict DTD, while the Frameset DTD was intended
for those documents which contained frames.
Separation of style and content
Efforts of the web development community have led to a new thinking
in the way a web document should be written; XHTML epitomizes this
effort. Standards stress using markup which suggests the structure
of the document, like headings, paragraphs, block quoted text, and
tables, instead of using markup which is written for visual purposes
only, like <font>, <b> (bold), and <i> (italics).
Some of these elements are not permitted in certain varieties of HTML,
like HTML 4.01 Strict. CSS provides a way to separate the HTML structure
from the content's presentation, by keeping all code dealing with
presentation defined in a CSS file. See separation of style and content.
The World Wide Web primarily uses HTTP to serve HTML documents to users.
In order to do this correctly, it is necessary for the document to
be described correctly: the necessary metadata includes the MIME Type
(typically "text/html", although other choices include "application/xhtml+xml")
and the character encoding (see Character encodings in HTML).
HTML is also used in email messages. Many email clients include a GUI
HTML editor for composing emails and a rendering engine for displaying
them once received. Use of HTML in email is quite controversial due
to a variety of issues. The main benefit is the ability to decorate
an email with presentational attributes (bold headings etc). However,
the disbenefits include:
the recipient may not have an email client that can display HTML
the email has larger size because lots of formatting will be much larger
than the plain text equivalent. This issue is made slightly worse by
the fact that, for compatibility, most clients send a plaintext version
overuse of formatting (there was at one stage a craze for making letterheads
using HTML and sending them as part of every e-mail) potential security
issues of deluding the recipient to accept an email as being from an
authoriative source (such as a bank) when this is not the case; this
is related to phishing scams. potential security issues of simply rendering
a complex format like HTML. For these reasons many mailing lists deliberately
block HTML email either stripping out the HTML part to just leave the
plain text part or rejecting the entire message.
Character encodings in HTML
Unicode and HTML
List of document markup languages
Comparison of document markup languages
Comparison of layout engines (HTML)
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